The Anabasis (also called The Anabasis of Cyrus, The March Up Country, The March of the Ten Thousand, and The Persian Expedition) is a work by the ancient Greek writer Xenophon.It details the journey of 10,000 Greek mercenaries in the army of Cyrus the Younger as he seeks to overthrow his older brother, the King of Persia Artaxerxes II. After the generals had been seized, and the captains and soldiers who 1formed their escort had been killed, the Hellenes lay in deepperplexity--a prey to painful reflections. Thereupon he refused further obedience,and went off with sails set for the Hellespont. He told them all that had happened. "May be, however, you are in good heart about the fighting, butannoyed to think that Tissaphernes will not guide us any more, andthat the king will not furnish us with a market any longer. And as other men pride themselveson piety and truth and righteousness, so Menon prided himself on acapacity for fraud, on the fabrication of lies, on the mockery andscorn of friends. Agias the Arcadian and Socrates the Achaean were both among thesufferers who were put to death. in slaying our benefactor should we not havechallenged to enter the lists against us a more formidable antagonistin the king himself? [3] See Herod. ", [2] For this ancient omen see "Odyssey," xvii. Later writers knew of a small kingdom here at the time of the Roman occupation, ruled by native princes, who after Tigranes II (about 80 B.C.) Some of the enemy, here a man and there another, perceived, andrunning back to the river, let fly their arrows and wounded a few; butthe majority, even when the Hellenes were well across, were still tobe seen pursuing their flight. See "Hist. Havinggot this money, he did not sink into a life of ease and indolence, butcollected an army with it, carried on war against the Thracians, and 5conquered them in battle, and from that date onwards harried andplundered them with war incessantly, until Cyrus wanted his army;whereupon he at once went off, in hopes of finding another sphere ofwarfare in his company. An orderhad been passed down the lines, what light infantry and what heavyinfantry were to take part in the pursuit; and the cavalry wereinstructed to follow up the pursuit with confidence, as a considerable 3support was in their rear. The Anabasis of Xenophon : with an interlinear translation, for the use of schools and private learners on the Hamiltonian system / as improved by Thomas ... Search full-text index. You see thefaithlessness of Tissaphernes, professing that he was next-doorneighbour to Hellas, and would give a good deal to save us, inconfirmation of which he took an oath to us himself, he gave us thepledge of his right hand, and then, with a lie upon his lips, thissame man turned round and arrested our generals. Thank heaventhey did not come upon us in any great force, but were only a handfulof men; so that the injury they did us was not large, as it might havebeen; and at least it has served to show us what we need. After that theyasked, "Were there any captains of light infantry willing to accompanythe expedition?" Xenophon rose again and said: "Listen, sirs, while Itell you what I think we have need of besides. He replied that hewished to make a treaty with them, in accordance with which he on hisside would abstain from injuring the Hellenes, if they would not burnhis houses, but merely take such provisions as they needed. So too, I am sure, he would be only too gladto accommodate us in the same way, if he saw us preparing to settledown here. The basement was 10made of polished stone full of shells; fifty feet was the breadth ofit, and fifty feet the height; and on this basement was reared a wallof brick, the breadth whereof was fifty feet and the height thereoffour hundred; and the circuit of the wall was six parasangs. At the time of his death he musthave been about fifty years of age. Honours and highestate he craved for simply that he might extend the area of hisgains; and if he studied to be on friendly terms with the powerful, itwas in order that he might commit wrong with impunity. Butwhen they were once encamped, and the barbarians, advancing upon thevillage, made an attempt to harass them with their sharp-shooters, thesuperiority of the Hellenes was pronounced. From the moment that he led them tovictory, the elements which went to make his soldiers efficient werenumerous enough. Thus, andwithout further ado, Xenophon offered sacrifice to those whom the godhad named, and set sail on his voyage. If it were a perjured person or awrongdoer, he dreaded him as well armed and intrenched; but thehonourable and the truth-loving he tried to practise on, regardingthem as weaklings devoid of manhood. Surely, just because they are friends ofboth parites, they will try to give us the best advice for you and forus.". In fact we, on our stout shanks,are better mounted than those cavalry fellows; there they hang on totheir horses' necks in mortal dread, not only of us, but of fallingoff; while we, well planted upon earth, can deal far heavier blows toour assailants, and aim more steadily at who we will. Memnon’s But if youimagine that you, on your side, have any better reason to mistrust theking and me, than we you, listen to me in turn, and I will undeceiveyou. And at asomewhat later date, when Xerxes assembled his countless hosts andmarched upon Hellas, then[4] too our fathers conquered the forefathersof our foes by land and by sea. It provides up-to-date guidance on literary, historical and cultural aspects of the Anabasis and will help undergraduate students to read Greek better. I shouldnot be surprised, then, if the enemy were to hang on our heels and dogus as we retire, like cowardly curs which rush out at the passer-byand bite him if they can, but when you turn upon them they run away.Such will be their tactics, I take it. They set out from the low ground with all the haste imaginable. The resolution wascarried. It was a narrow mountainspur[9] overhanging the descent into the plain. But he had no sooner fairly started than, for some reasonor other, the ephors changed their minds, and endeavoured to bring himback again from the isthmus. 8; Athenæus, x. p. The Medes once dwelt in it. When all was duly ordered the move began, the young men pioneeringthem, and keeping the river on their left. When nothing could be got out of him, hewas killed before the eyes of his fellow. ii. As to us, Igo so far as to assert, we ought never to have let it be seen that wewere bent on getting home: at any rate, not so soon; we should havebegun stocking and furnishing ourselves, as if we fully meant tosettle down for life somewhere or other hereabouts. If any one has a better plan to propose, let him doso." Do that, andtheir spirits will soon revive wonderfully. By the side of this city there was a stone pyramid inbreadth a hundred feet, and in height two hundred feet; in it weremany of the barbarians who had fled for refuge from the neighbouringvillages. Lucius Flavius Arrianus - or Arrian, as he is usually called in the English language - was born in Nicomedia, one of the Greek towns in the Roman empire, between 85 and 90 CE. ANABASIS. Livy (ix. Xenophon explained: he had not thought it desirableto leave the rear unprotected, with an enemy appearing in the field ofview. Why then, with all theseavenues of attack, this machinery of war, open to us, not one of whichcan be turned against ourselves, why should we select from among themall that method, which alone in the sight of God is impious and of manabominable? BOOK I. Darius and Parysatis had two sons: the elder was named Artaxerxes, and 1. the younger Cyrus. The soldiers outside have their eyes fixedupon you; if they think that you are faint-hearted, they will turncowards; but if you show them that you are making your ownpreparations to attack the enemy, and setting an example to therest--follow you, be assured, they will: imitate you they will. ThenLycius, who commanded the cavalry, and Aeschines, who was in commandof the division of light infantry attached to Cheirisophus, no soonersaw them fleeing so lustily than they were after them, and thesoldiers shouted not to fall behind[5], but to follow them right up tothe mountains. Search HathiTrust. "Why, when we had it in our power to destroy you, did we not proceedto do it? "I know," he added, "there 27will be no lack of youngsters to follow where I lead." He had with himhis own cavalry and a force belonging to Orontas, who had the king'sdaughter to wife; and there were, moreover, with them the Asiaticswhom Cyrus had taken with him on his march up; together with thosewhom the king's brother had brought as a reinforcement to the king;besides those whom Tissaphernes himself had received as a gift fromthe king, so that the armament appeared to be very great. If you like, stay in command of the army, and I will go; or, ifyou prefer, do you go to the mountain, and I will stay here." of Greece," vol. and Roman Biography. download 1 file . Aristobulus, which two he chiefly followed, Diodotus of Erythrae, The full meaning, however, isto be discovered from what happened after the dream. [2] These words sound to me like an author's note, parenthetically, and perhaps inadvertently, inserted into the text. v. p. 475. "At this very moment you would confer a great boon on the army, if youmade it your business to appoint generals and officers to fill theplaces of those that are lost. The main bodywith Cheirisophus made its way down into the plain and encamped in avillage filled with good things of divers sorts. Great as his merits thus But Xenophon had adream. And the fire kindled all around--what could thatmean but that he was hemmed in by various perplexities, and so couldnot escape from the country of the king? 1017. . But we will beeven with them; if they leave provisions for themselves anywhere,there also shall they see us marching;" and, turning to Cheirisophus,he added: "But it strikes me, we should sally forth against theseincendiaries and protect our country." "If any one has any better plan, we need not adopt mine; but if not,suppose Cheirisophus takes the lead, as he is a Lacedaemonian, and thetwo eldest generals take in charge the two wings respectively, whilstTimasion and I, the two youngest, will for the present guard the rear. The name is said to mean "citadel," and is given to various Greek cities (of which several occur in Xenophon). At times ithappened that, the relief party having mounted, encounteredconsiderable annoyance in their descent from the barbarians, who wereso agile that they allowed them to come up quite close, before theyturned back, and still escaped, partly no doubt because the onlyweapons they had to carry were bows and slings. Or to take the contrary instance, whenjust now, acting precisely on your principles, our generals andcaptains went, trusting to the truce, unarmed to a conference withthem, what came of it? "Now, however, that they have abruptly ended the truce, there is anend also to their own insolence and to our suspicion. But Clearchus wanted the entire army to giveits mind to no one else, and that refractory people should be put outof the way. Then I shall carry them across, and when Ihave fastened the links at both ends, I shall place layers of wood onthem and a coating of earth on the top of that. At the time of his death he was onlythirty years of age. It is clear that wemust march where we can get provisions. The work was written in the second century AD (ref.- p.xiii), and pertains to the life of Alexander III (ref. "However, it is time," he added, "to decide how we are todislodge these fellows from the crest." If, on the other hand,we purpose to take our good swords in our hands and to inflictpunishment on them for what they have done, and from this time forwardwill be on terms of downright war with them, then, God helping, wehave many a bright hope of safety." We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. ix. Or is mere living an objectwith any of you, strive to conquer; if to slay is the privilege ofvictory, to die is the doom of the defeated. He claims them as his, sincethey belonged to Cyrus, who was his slave." ", [1] The reader should turn to Grote's comments on the first appearance of Xenophon. He approached the Hellenes as if he were friendly;but when they had got fairly to close quarters, all of a sudden someof them, whether mounted or on foot, began shooting with their bowsand arrows, and another set with slings, wounding the men. Nay, if in a fit of madness we murderedyou, what then? Cheirisophus and his men were returning from their sally of defencewhen Xenophon and his party descended, and the latter rode along the 4ranks as the rescuing party came up, and greeted them thus: "Do younot see, men of Hellas, they admit that the country is now ours; whatthey stipulated against our doing when they made the treaty, viz. v. 1. Cf. Then the meaning of his mission was plain. Available Indexes Full-text Catalog. Full view only. Cheirisophus was in possession of the higher ground, and Lycius, withhis little squadron, in an attempt to follow up the pursuit, hadcaptured some stragglers of their baggage-bearers, and with them somehandsome apparel and drinking-cups. Everything, moreover, which is not necessary to make his This he did in apprehensionof a night attack, for a Persian army is good for nothing at night.Their horses are haltered, and, as a rule, hobbled as well, to preventtheir escaping, as they might if loose; so that, if any alarm occurs,the trooper has to saddle and bridle his horse, and then he must puton his own cuirass, and then mount--all which performances aredifficult at night and in the midst of confusion. On arrival at the doors of Tissaphernes's quarters the generals weresummoned inside. Herodotus, vii. And these, seeing their own cavalryfleeing, seeing also the heavy infantry advancing upon them, abandonedthe heights above the river. his simplicity and his unbiassed judgment. Hither,as the story goes, Medea[4], the king's wife, betook herself in flightwhat time the Medes lost their empire at the hands of the Persians. "I coveted the friendship of Cyrus; I believed him to be abler thanany man of his day to benefit those whom he chose; but to-day I lookand, behold, it is you who are in his place; the power which belonged 11to Cyrus and his territory are yours now. As soon as they reached a halting-place, Xenophon, without more ado,came up to Cheirisophus, and took him to task for not having waited,"whereby," he said, "we were forced to fight and flee at the same 19moment; and now it has cost us the lives of two fine fellows; they aredead, and we were not able to pick up their bodies or bury them. Description. Them may the gods requite as theydeserve! Xenophon. oratory. The inflorescences are elongated or condensed spikes. ", Such were the speaker's words; and the officers, when they heard, all,with one exception, called upon him to put himself at their head. "And proofs of these things are yet to be seen in trophies; but thegreatest witness of all is the freedom of our cities--the liberty ofthat land in which you were born and bred. He also gave him, toform part of the detachment, the three hundred of the picked corps[10]under his own command at the head of the square. The banks before named on which they weredrawn up were a hundred yards or more distant from the river, and thesingle road which was visible was one leading upwards and looking likea regular artificially constructed highway. To sustain a running fightwith an enemy constantly attacking was one thing; to keep him at arm'slength from a fixed base of action another: and the difference wasmuch in their favour. Their name, pronounced Kardu by the ancient Syrians and Assyrians, Kordu by the Armenians (plural Kordukh), first appears in its narrower sense in western literature in the pages of the eye-witness Xenophon as {Kardoukhoi}. But with the dawn the generals and officers of the Hellenes met andresolved to proceed, taking only the necessary number of stout baggageanimals, and leaving the weaklings behind. Butas soon as they caught sight of one another, the trumpet sounded, andwith a loud cheer they rushed upon the fellows, who did not wait theircoming, but left the road and made off; with the loss of only a fewlives however, so nimble were they. And now, whenthe Hellenes saw that they were really and clearly gone, they toobroke up their camp and pursued their march till they had traversedseven and a half miles. To put itbriefly, war was his mistress; just as another man will spend hisfortune on a favourite, or to gratify some pleasure, so he chose tosquander his substance on soldiering. We haveseen with our own eyes how they fare: seizing fortresses down in theplains, and reaping the fruits of these men's territory. In like manner, the possessions of hisfoes were secure from his designs, since it was no easy task, hethought, to steal from people on their guard; but it was hisparticular good fortune to have discovered how easy it is to rob afriend in the midst of his security. The next day was a day of inaction: they halted and took in supplies,as there was much corn in the villages; but on the day following, themarch was continued through the plain (of the Tigris), andTissaphernes still hung on their skirts with his skirmishers. Withhim you have murdered the very men to whom you gave your solemn wordand oath, and to the rest of us turned traitors; and, having so done, 39you join hand with our enemies to come against us." A good solder! --Grote, "Hist. And Ariaeus, whom we offered to make king, withwhom we exchanged pledges not to betray each other, even this man,without a particle of fear of the gods, or respect for Cyrus in hisgrave, though he was most honoured by Cyrus in lifetime, even he hasturned aside to the worst foes of Cyrus, and is doing his best toinjure the dead man's friends. As soon as they had halted within earshot,Ariaeus said: "Hellenes, Clearchus being shown to have committedperjury and to have broken the truce, has suffered the penalty, and heis dead; but Proxenus and Menon, in return for having giveninformation of his treachery, are in high esteem and honour. To-day you have made 16trial of them, and knowing that, however many times your number, theydo not care to await your onset, what concern have you now to beafraid of them? When they had breakfasted and the march recommenced, the generalsplanted themselves a little to one side in a narrow place, and whenthey found any of the aforesaid slaves or other property stillretained, they confiscated them. In the next place, let me recallto your minds the dangers of our own forefathers, that you may see and 11know that bravery is your heirloom, and that by the aid of the godsbrave men are rescued even out of the midst of sorest straits. For without leaders nothing good ornoble, to put it concisely, was ever wrought anywhere; and in militarymatters this is absolutely true; for if discipline is held to be ofsaving virtue, the want of it has been the ruin of many ere now. or, possibly, do we seem to you 17to lack the physical surroundings suitable for attacking you? [4] Then = at Salamis, B.C. Örs’ positivist view of the text could have influenced Okay in his relative objectivity in summarising Anabasis. See iii. As to certain obscure charges brought against his character, these maycertainly be fabrications. But partly too he feared it, for evidently it had comefrom Zeus the king. ", At this point Cleanor the Ochomenian stood up and spoke as follows:"You see, men, the perjury and the impiety of the king. The other was well pleased, and with the first faint gleam of dawn thegenerals all were present and did sacrifice; and the victims werefavourable in the first essay. When theywere close, he halted some of his regiments at the rear and wheeledothers into position on either flank, but hesitated to attack, havingno mind apparently to run any risks, and contenting himself with anorder to his slingers to sling and his archers to shoot. Retiring from the sacrifice, thegenerals and officers issued an order to the troops to take theirbreakfasts; and while Xenophon was taking his, two young men camerunning up to him, for every one knew that, breakfasting or supping,he was always accessible, or that even if asleep any one was welcometo awaken him who had anything to say bearing on the business of war. As soon as theywere within a short distance, they bade any general or captain of theHellenes who might be there to approach and hear a message from theking. From the highground down the sheer steep they poured a volley of darts,slingstones, and arrows, which they discharged "under the lash[8],"wounding many, until they got the better of the Hellenic light troops,and drove them for shelter behind the heavy infantry, so that this daythat arm was altogether useless, huddling in the mob of sutlers, both 26slingers and archers alike. "Let us look another matter in the face. After this thegenerals were chosen. Did he aspire to the first place in another man'sfriendship, he set about his object by slandering those who stoodnearest to him in affection. It is hardto say what he did not do, he was so at his wit's end, sending usembassies and begging for a truce, and furnishing provisions thewhile, until he had got it. In this way they advanced four stages, but ere the fifth wascompleted, they came in sight of a palace of some sort, with villagesclustered round it; they could further see that the road leading tothis place pursued its course over high undulating hillocks, the spurof the mountain range, under which lay the village. Towhichsoever of us shall prove the better men, will they fall asguerdons; and the gods themselves are the judges of the strife. 13. Next day Clearchus returned to the camp, and made no secretof his persuasion that he at any rate stood high in the affections ofTissaphernes, and he reported what he had said, insisting that thoseinvited ought to go to Tissaphernes, and that any Hellene convicted ofcalumnious language ought to be punished, not only as traitorsthemselves, but as disaffected to their fellow-countrymen. Equals-in-Honour, or Peers, spent their time about the Court. Variousways in which you Hellenes may be useful to me you yourself havementioned, but there is one still greater. This is the first comprehensive commentary on a section of Xenophon's Anabasis in English for almost a century. Forin a war with heaven, by what swiftness of foot can a man escape?--inwhat quarter find refuge?--in what darkness slink away and be hid?--towhat strong fortress scale and be out of reach? 10What the two young men had at this time to say was that they had beencollecting brushwood for fire, and had presently espied on theopposite side, in among some rocks which came down to the river'sbrink, an old man and some women and little girls depositing, as itwould appear, bags of clothes in a cavernous rock. Then, as matters were safe with him, Cheirisophus sent back thepeltasts and slingers and archers to join Xenophon, with orders tocarry out his instructions. The arrows pierced through shieldand cuirass, and the Hellenes, when they got hold of them, used themas javelins, fitting them to their thongs. 17-19. Lucian, Alex., 2), that Arrian 982 Xenophon (Cyropaedia, vii. The "Cyropaedeia" is full of such comments, "pieces justificatives" inserted into the text. At any rate they have deserted us, and sought refuge withthem. 5, 85) says that the Persian 19; v. 12; ix. - p.xi), who died in 323 BC (ref. Then turning to the officers: "Andnow," said he, "let us waste no time; retire at once, I beg you, andchoose leaders where you need them. 541: "Even as she spake, and Telemachus sneezed loudly, and around the roof rung wondrously. That Xenophon hesitated to do, for Tissaphernesand his whole army were coming up and were well within sight.Galloping up to the front himself, he asked: "Why do you summon me? At that time,it was to win a throne for Cyrus that you showed your bravery; to-day,when the struggle is for your own salvation, what is more natural thanthat you should show yourselves braver and more zealous still. Meanwhile the ArgiveArchagoras arrived, in full flight, with the announcement that theyhad been dislodged from the first ridge, and that Cephisodorus andAmphicrates were slain, with a number of others besides, all in factwho had not jumped down the crags and so reached the rearguard. So wasit when the Persians came, and their attendant hosts[3], with a verygreat armament, to wipe out Athens from the face of the earth--the menof Athens had the heart to withstand them and conquered them. Thelieutenant-governor of it was Tiribazus, the king's friend, andwhenever the latter paid a visit, he alone had the privilege ofmounting the king upon his horse. But Xenophon, takingthe most active-bodied of the rearguard, began running back at fullspeed to the passage facing the egress into the hills of Armenia,making a feint of crossing at that point to intercept their cavalry onthe river bank. 9.1", "denarius") All Search Options [view abbreviations] Home Collections/Texts Perseus Catalog Research Grants Open Source About Help. Meanwhile, as the rest of the army filed past,and the colloquy was proceeding, all the people of the place had timeto gather gradually, and the enemy formed; and as soon as the Hellenesbegan to descend from the mamelon to join the others where the troopswere halted, on rushed the foe, in full force, with hue and cry. We haveheard of the Mysians, a people whom we certainly cannot admit to bebetter than ourselves; and yet they inhabit numbers of large andprosperous cities in the king's own country without asking leave. . Whenever the rear was the point attacked,Cheirisophus, in the same way, made a detour, and by endeavouring tomount higher than the barricaders, freed the passage for the rearrank; and in this way, turn and turn about, they rescued each other,and paid unflinching attention to their mutual needs. After this the whole Hellenic force united, and took up their quartersthere in numerous beautiful dwellings, with an ample store ofprovisions, for there was wine so plentiful that they had it incemented cisterns. a general toundertake the work? Some think "the wall of Media" should be "Medea's wall," constructed in the period of Queen Nitocris, B.C. "I am glad, Clearchus, to listen to your sensible remarks; for withthe sentiments you hold, if you were to devise any mischief againstme, it could only be out of malevolence to yourself. Surely it belongs to people altogether without resources,who are helplessly struggling in the toils of fate, and are villainsto boot, to seek accomplishment of their desires by perjury to heavenand faithlessness to their fellows. If again it were necessary to effect a passage by bridge orotherwise, there was no confusion, the several companies crossing inturns; or, if the occasion arose to form in line of battle, thesecompanies came up to the front and fell in[7]. When the Hellenes perceived that they were preparing to retire, andthat the order was being given, the herald's cry, "Pack up forstarting," might be heard before the enemy was fairly out of earshot.For a while the Asiatics paused, as if unwilling to be gone; but asnight closed in, off they went, for it did not suit their notions ofexpediency to set off on a march and arrive by night. Thegods, who full surely will be on our side, seeing it is our enemieswho have taken their names falsely; whilst we, with much to lure us,yet for our oath's sake, and the gods who were our witnesses, sternlyheld aloof. Xenophon, with the rearguard, followed the path which theparty with the guide had taken, since it was easiest for the beasts ofburthen; one half of his men he had posted in rear of the baggageanimals; the other half he had with himself. But partly too he feared it, to praise thevirtuous and to theseterms agreed. The campaignreferred to was understood to be your friend, isto be discovered from what after! The lists against us a more formidable antagonistin the king 's power, needwe ask what our fate battlefrom anabasis full text... Whom the godhad named, and of riper age, indeed, than most of the ``.! Separate and carryout what we have need of besides a barrier to mutual hostility '' continued Socrates, be! 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