Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (German: Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand; 9 October 1735 – 10 November 1806) was the Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and a military leader. On 16 January 1764, Charles married Princess Augusta of Great Britain, eldest sister of King George III. Trouvez les Empress Of Prussia images et les photos d’actualités parfaites sur Getty Images. The force was initially commanded by the Anglo-Hanoverian Prince William, Duke of Cumberland. Some commentators have pointed to inbreeding as a possible cause for the fact that many of the couple's children suffered from physical, mental or psychological disabilities. He was the second and last Prussian duke of the Ansbach branch of the Hohenzollern family. [3] Frederick II praised the prince personally for his conduct during the war.[14]. He was the fourth son of German prince and Duke of Braunschweig-Lüneburg Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand and his wife Princess Augusta of Great Britain. [citation needed], From 1778 to 1779 he served in the War of the Bavarian Succession. Trouvez les Victoria Louise Princess Of Prussia images et les photos d’actualités parfaites sur Getty Images. Just as in 1792 the King of Prussia, by now Frederick William III, accompanied the army, but he was less forceful than his predecessors, and was unable to impose a single strategy on his two commanders (Brunswick … He sponsored enlightenment arts and sciences; most notably he was patron to the young mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss, paying for him to attend university against the wishes of Gauss' father. Having secured Longwy and Verdun without serious resistance, he turned back after a mere skirmish in Valmy, and evacuated France. He received an unusually wide and thorough education, overseen by his mother. As the heir apparent of a sovereign prince, Charles William Ferdinand received the title of Hereditary Prince (German: Erbprinz). Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel: 10. When he counterattacked the Revolutionary French who had invaded Germany, in 1793, he recaptured Mainz after a long siege, but resigned in 1794 in protest at interference by Frederick William II of Prussia. Riedesel was given command of all the German troops serving in the Saratoga campaign, under British general John Burgoyne. Philippine Charlotte was the favourite daughter of King Frederick William I of Prussia[1] and sister of Frederick II of Prussia (Frederick the Great). He was also a recognized master of 18th century warfare, serving as a Field Marshal in the Prussian Army. Anonymous 1780 copy of a portrait painted in 1777 or earlier by, Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, Significant civil and political events by year. Both of them were married to future kings, both made extreme failures of their marriages, both had extremely acrimonious relations with their husbands, and both were accused by them of similar faults: adultery, uncouth behavior, absence of dignity, falsehood and utter fecklessness. Ernest Augustus died at Marienburg Castle in 1953. In 1742, he entered the Dutch … However, the bill was never introduced in the House of Commons and the divorce was never finalized. The elder daughter, Auguste Caroline Friederike (1764–1788), was the wife of the future king Frederick I of Württemberg and mother of the future William I of Württemberg. [12], He resembled his uncle Frederick the Great in many ways, but he lacked the resolution of the king, and in civil as in military affairs was prone to excessive caution. He never married. by lodging the prince at Somerset House, instead of one of the royal palaces; not providing him with a military guard; and instructing the servants at the wedding to wear old clothes. Charles (German: Karl; 1 August 1713, Braunschweig 26 March 1780, Braunschweig), Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Bevern line), reigned as Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel from 1735 until his death. The Duke and Duchess of Brunswick had five children. [3] He continued to serve in the army commanded by his uncle for the remainder of the war, which was generally successful for the north German forces. Frederick and Augusta also had three daughters, two of whom reached adulthood. Part IV . The Duke abandoned Verdun on 8 October and Longwy on 22 October,[19] before retreating back into Germany. He fought under Prince Eugene … As a result, in 1773 Charles William Ferdinand was given a major role in reforming the economy. [16] The campaign had taken less than a month. He had great success in the Seven Years War (1756–63) and was commander in chief (1792–94) of the Austro-Prussian armies in the French Revolutionary Wars. Albert became Duke of Prussia after paying feudal homage to his cousin, the King of Poland, Zygmunt August, on July 19, 1569 in Lublin. written by liamfoley63. Despite being over 70 years old, the Duke of Brunswick returned to command the Prussian army at the personal request of Louise, Queen of Prussia.[3]. During World War I, the duke rose to the rank of major-general. Born in Wolfenbüttel, Germany, Karl Wilhelm was duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg from 1780 until his death and ruled over the Wolfenbüttel subdivision of the duchy. Albert of Prussia (German: Albrecht von Preussen; 17 May 1490 – 20 March 1568) was a German nobleman who was the 37th Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights, who after converting to Lutheranism, became the first ruler of the Duchy of Prussia, the secularized state that emerged from the former Monastic State of the Teutonic Knights.Albert was the first European ruler to … He was blind and was also excluded from the succession. Duke of Brunswick, 1792 J.H. [3], His father, Charles I, had been an enthusiastic supporter of the war, but nearly bankrupted the state paying for it. The Duchy of Brunswick was a historical German state. Most of these efforts were thwarted, however, by the determined resistance of the clergy and nobility. The Duke and Duchess of Brunswick had five children [By Royal Warrant of 17 June 1914, George V granted the eldest son and any children thereafter born to Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover, then reigning Duke of Brunswick, the title of Prince (or Princess) of Great Britain and Ireland with the style Highness. He is buried in the crypt at Brunswick Cathedral in Brunswick, Duchy of Brunswick, now in Lower Saxony, Germany. The two men had different plans for 1792. The son of Charles I of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Philippina Charlotte, a sister of Frederick II of Prussia, Charles was educated in the classical, rationalist tradition. When news spread of a combined Austrian and Prussian army led by Brunswick marching into French soil on the days after the Manifesto was publicized, the Paris populace, already incensed by the threat against the city, exploded into violence. At the outbreak of the War of the First Coalition in the early summer of 1792, Ferdinand was poised with military forces at Coblenz. Albert Frederick (German: Albrecht Friedrich; Polish: Albrecht Fryderyk; 7 May 1553 – 28 August 1618) was the Duke of Prussia, from 1568 until his death.He was a son of Albert of Prussia and Anna Marie of Brunswick-Lüneburg.He was the second and last Prussian duke of the Ansbach branch of the Hohenzollern family.. Duke of Prussia. [3] The league was successful in forcing the Austrian Joseph II to back down, and thereafter became obsolete. Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel was born in Germany as Friedrich Wilhelm on 9 October 1771. The proclamation was intended to threaten the French population into submission; it had exactly the opposite effect. Caroline of Brunswick (Caroline Amelia Elizabeth; German: Caroline Amalie Elisabeth von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel; 17 May 1768 – 7 August 1821) was Queen of the United Kingdom and Hanover as the wife of King George IV from 29 January 1820 until her death in 1821. Additionally, the manifesto threatened the French population with instant punishment should they resist the Imperial and Prussian armies, or the reinstatement of the monarchy. Wilhelm died at Sibyllenort Castle in Silesia, Kingdom of Prussia now in Szczodre, Poland, on October 18, 1884. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The result of Brunswick's cautious advance on Paris was the cannonade of Valmy followed by the retreat of the allies. [16] Amsterdam, the last city occupied by the Patriots, surrendered on 10 October. The structure of the high command has been particularly criticised by historians, with multiple officers developing differing plans and then disagreeing on which should be followed, leading to disorganisation and indecision. 2. William was the second son of Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and after the death of his father in 1815, was under the guardianship of King George IV of the United Kingdom.He became a Prussian major in 1823. Caroline died three weeks after she was physically prevented from entering Westminster Abbey to participate in her husband's coronation. p. 687. Princess Philippine Charlotte of Prussia: 2. Omissions? Frederick Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (5 April 1729 in Brunswick 27 April 1809 in Glücksburg), was a member of the House of Guelph. As the king of Prussia took the field with Brunswick's army, the duke felt bound as a soldier to treat his wishes as actual orders. The Duchy of Brunswick within the German Empire. [citation needed] (Wolfenbüttel had been the capital since 1432.) Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... …October the Prussian-Saxon army, under Charles William Ferdinand, duke of Brunswick, moved slowly westward through Saxony in an attempt to threaten Napoleon’s communications to the west. In large part, the manifesto had been written by Louis XVI's cousin, Louis Joseph de Bourbon, Prince de Condé, who was the leader of a large corps of émigrés in the allied army. He joined the Prussian army in 1789 as a captain … The visit was disguised as a family visit, but was in fact to discuss the formation of a league of small- and mid-sized German states as a counterbalance within the Holy Roman Empire to Habsburg Monarchy's ambitions to trade the Austrian Netherlands for the Electorate of Bavaria. Jan 9, 2015 - Princess Viktoria Luise of Prussia and husband Ernst August III, Duke of Brunswick, and Cumberland, Elector of Hannover. [5] The Parliament of Great Britain showed its gratitude by voting him a lump sum of £80,000 and an annual income of £3,000 as a wedding gift. He joined the Prussian … Equivalent in 2019 to £11,400,000 and £430,000 per year respectively. He was the cousin and brother-in-law (from 8 April 1795) of his friend George IV, Prince Regent of the United Kingdom(from 1811). This Fürstenbund (League of Princes) was formally announced in 1785, with the Duke of Brunswick as one of its members and commander of its military forces. Until Valmy and Jena, Karl was considered a master of the warfare of the period. "[13], In 1803 the process of German Mediatisation led to the acquisition of the neighbouring imperial abbeys of Gandersheim and Helmstedt, which were secularised. [3][17] He also received credit for the low number of casualties; one British observer suggested that "the sap of the trees was the only blood shed" (an exaggeration),[18] referring to the wooden palisades and batteries constructed by both sides. The fourth son of Ferdinand Albert II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Ferdinand joined the Prussian army as a colonel in 1740. Karl Georg August, Hereditary Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Charles I, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover), service with the British armies in America, Karl August, Duke of Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach, Hedwig Elizabeth Charlotte of Holstein-Gottorp, Frederika Luise Wilhelmine, Princess of Orange-Nassau, Maria Elisabeth Wilhelmine, Princess of Baden, Ferdinand Albert I, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel-Bevern, Ferdinand Albert II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Louis Rudolph, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Duchess Antoinette of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Princess Christine Louise of Oettingen-Oettingen, Brunswick, Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, Duke of, Text of the Proclamation of the Duke of Brunswick-Luneburg, 1792, "BRUNSWICK-LÜNEBURG, Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of", "Brunswick, Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, Duke of", "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)", "The Sesquicentennial of the Birth of Gauss", England expects that every man will do his duty, Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, Frederick Louis, Prince of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen, François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau, Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth, Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau, List of people associated with the French Revolution, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Charles_William_Ferdinand,_Duke_of_Brunswick&oldid=995711119, Military leaders of the French Revolutionary Wars, German military leaders of the French Revolutionary Wars, Prussian commanders of the Napoleonic Wars, Military personnel killed in the Napoleonic Wars, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2016, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Declared an invalid; Excluded from line of succession, This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 14:00. Neither of them was disabled, but both of them had similar, disastrous trajectories in life. Sophia-Dorothea spent many days talking to her eldest son, Crown Prince Friedrich, in the library, and was informed of his plans to escape from his father’s custody. The (eldest) prince, chubby and fat, almost blind, strange and odd - if not to say an imbecile - attempts to imitate his father but only makes himself artificial and unpleasant. The first violent action was carried out on August 10, when the Tuileries Palace was stormed. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). He was present in the battles of Mollwitz and Chotusitz.After Margrave Wilhelm of Brandenburg was killed at Prague in 1744, Ferdinand received command of Frederick the Great's Leibgarde battalion, and at the Battle of Soor … Made a Prussian field marshal in 1787, Charles defeated the Dutch democratic Patriots in a campaign that returned the stadtholder William V of Orange to power. Corrections? In 1884, the reigning Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, a distant cousin, died. 19,99 € Availability : Available Warning: Last items in stock ! Indeed, the duke was once moved to describe his children to von Massenbach as "mostly cripples in mind and body."[21]. The Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, or more properly the Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg, was a historical duchy that existed from the late Middle Ages to the Early Modern era within the Holy Roman Empire. In 1766 they went to France, where they were received by both his allies and recent battlefield enemies with respect. As such, they were not related in a particularly close degree, yet there had been many bonds of marriage between the House of Brunswick-Bevern and the House of Hanover, themselves both branches of the House of Welf. Its name came from the two largest cities in the territory: Brunswick and Lüneburg. Though he was Frederick II the Great’s nephew and favourite disciple, Charles proved to be less than successful in his military career, being defeated by Revolutionary France at Valmy (1792) and at Auerstädt (1806), at which time the whole Frederician military-political system collapsed and Prussia became a French dependency. Hannover, Ernst August III of, Duke of Brunswick - Germany*17.11.1887-+Marriage of the prussian Empress' daughter Viktoria Luise of Prussia and Duke Ernst August of Brunswick:contemporary... Obtenez des photos d'actualité haute résolution de qualité sur Getty Images In 1806 Queen Louisa of Prussia convinced the Duke to come out of retirement and take command of the Prussian army (War of the Fourth Coalition). Charles Louis, Hereditary Prince of Baden: 13. [10], Over the next few years the couple embarked on a wide-ranging tour of Europe, visiting many of the major states. File:Royal Banquet of the Wedding of Princess Victoria Louise of Prussia and Ernst August, Duke of Brunswick.png From Wikimedia Commons, the … Its capital was the city of Brunswick. Their eldest son, Karl Georg August (1766–1806) was named heir apparent, but suffered from a significant learning disability and was regarded as "well-nigh imbecile. Prussia did not take part in the Second Coalition or Third Coalition against Revolutionary France. By the time, Brunswick-Lüneburg had consolidated back into two states, Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover). (Boston: Ginn, 1906), 2: 443-445 Hanover Historical Texts Project Scanned by Brooke Harris, October 1996. The future Queen of Sweden, Hedwig Elizabeth Charlotte of Holstein-Gottorp, described the ducal family thus: The Duchess is the sister to the King of England and a typical Englishwoman. He was the second and last Prussian duke of the Ansbach branch of the Hohenzollern family. Brunswick-Lüneburg Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg Brunswick Ferdinand, Prince of Brunswick-Lüneburg (12 January 1721, Wolfenbüttel – 3 July 1792, Vechelde), was a German-Prussian field marshal (1758–1766) known for his participation in the Seven Years' War. Ernest Augustus III (Ernest Augustus Christian George; German: Ernst August Christian Georg; 17 November 1887 – 30 January 1953), reigning Duke of Brunswick (2 November 1913 – 8 November 1918), was a grandson of George V of Hanover, whom the Prussians deposed in 1866. The fourth son of Ferdinand Albert II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Ferdinand joined the Prussian army as a colonel in 1740. Ernst August of Brunswick is the current ruler of the Lower Saxon Duchy of Brunswick, one of the constituent states of the German Empire.Brunswick was ruled by foreign regents from 1884 to 1913, when the marriage between Ernst August, grandson of the last King of Hanover, and Viktoria Luise of Prussia, son of Wilhelm II, led to rapproachment between House Hanover and … Only reluctantly did he sign the punitive “manifesto” drafted by an émigré, which warned that Paris would be subjected to exemplary punishment if Louis XVI and his family were harmed (see French Revolution). She looked very simple, like a vicar's wife, has I am sure many admirable qualities, and is very respectable, but completely lacks manners. The Duke of Brunswick is also the maternal grandfather of Queen Sophia of Spain and the former King Constantine II of Greece. Coup d’ Etat of Brumaire was the plan for Napoleon and two other radicals to be given power from the Council of Five Hundred by bribing and intimidating the council. The "Brunswick Proclamation" or "Brunswick Manifesto" that he now issued from Coblenz on July 25, 1792 threatened war and ruin to soldiers and civilians alike, should the Republicans injure Louis XVI and his family. William, Duke of Brunswick (German: Wilhelm August Ludwig Maximilian Friedrich; 25 April 1806 – 18 October 1884), was ruling duke of the Duchy of Brunswick from 1830 until his death. In the course of the 19th-century history of Germany, the duchy was part of the German Confederation, the North German Confederation and from 1871 the German Empire. Prince Frederick William of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel was born in Braunschweig as the fourth son of Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and Princess Augusta of Great Britain.He was the cousin and brother-in-law (from 8 April 1795) of his friend George IV, Prince Regent of the United Kingdom (from 1811).. [10] He also never married. He died childless at the age of 40 in 1806, shortly before his father. It was … Proofread and pages added by Jonathan Perry, March 2001. "Brunswick, Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, Duke of". As he had no heir, the ducal throne should have passed to Ernst August of Hanover, 3rd Duke of Cumberland. Charles Frederick, Grand Duke of Baden: 6. The goal was to suppress the Patriots of the Batavian Revolution, restoring the authority of the stadtholder William V of the House of Orange. Ernest Augustus, Hereditary Prince of Brunswick (18 March 1914 – 9 December 1987); married (1) 1951, Princess Ortrud of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (19 December 1925 – 6 February 1980), and had issue; and (2) 1981, Countess Monika zu Solms-Laubach(8 August 1929 – 4 June 2015). The Encyclopædia Britannica described the Duke's invasion: "His success was rapid, complete and almost bloodless, and in the eyes of contemporaries the campaign appeared as an example of perfect generalship". The duke was a cultured and benevolent despot in the model of Frederick the Great, and was married to Princess Augusta, a sister of George III of Great Britain. [16] They entered The Hague on the 20th, from which the Patriots had been forced to withdraw following a loyalist insurrection on the 17th. Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha: 1. Perfect state. He is buried in the crypt at Brunswick Cathedral in Brunswick, Duchy of Brunswick, now in Lower Saxony, Germany. 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